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Location :

Syria , Officially Syrian Arab Republic , is located in the heart of the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon to the west ,Palestine to the southwest, Jordan to the south, Iraq to the east, and Turkey to the north.

The land area of Syria is 185.180 km2 (71.500sq. miles) , and it has a population of 19,405 million ( 2007 ).


Geographical make-up

Syria the land of great diversity, starting from the coast, mountains, steppe ending in the Syrian Desert.

With about 110 miles (180 kilometers) along the Mediterranean Sea, the coast lies between Turkey and Lebanon, and it includes both areas of sandy shores, cliffs and rocky headlands. From "Ras Al-Basit" to "Ras Ibn Hani" there are rounded gulfs like  "Minet El-Baida" that once sheltered the great kingdom of Ugarit.


The coastal mountainous range borders the coastal plain and runs from north to south. The mountains have an average width of 35 km, and their altitude declines from a modest 5,673 feet (1,729 m) in the north (east of Lattakia) to 5,256 feet (1,602 m) at Jebel Aqra to 1,969 feet (600 m) in the south, at the gap near Homs. Directly to the east of the mountains is the "Ghab" Depression, a 75 km longitudinal trench that contains the valley of the Orontes River.

The main ridge rises to a maximum height of 8,625 feet (2,629 m) near Al-Nabk, while the average height is between 6,000 and 7,000 feet. Mt. Hermon (Jebel al Shaykh), Syria's highest point, rises to 9,232 feet (2,814 m).


This semi circle of fertile land encompasses the Syrian Desert. This is where agriculture first began. Starting from the "Ghab" depression it extends eastward to create the most important geographical feature in Syria. With the addition of the Dam on the Euphrates, and modern irrigation this part of Syria is the area with the biggest production of cotton.


And Sure the Syrian Desert that comprises about 58 % of the Syrian territory .These undulating plains, often called the steppe, have a general elevation between 980 and 1,640 feet; they are seldom less than 820 feet (250 m) above sea level. The area is not a sand desert but comprises rock and gravel steppe; a mountainous region in the south-central area is known as al Hamad, and the main oasis is that at the foot of the Palmyrene Mountains which has very sulfurous water springs. The Climate here generally tends to be continental. Summers are long and extremely hot, while winters are short with severe cold winds.