Temperature, humidity and aridity:
On the coast summers are hot and very humid, with a maximum daily
average of 29 C, while the mild winters have a minimum daily average of
10 C. The only areas where summers are cool in Syria, are in places
with an altitude of over 1,969 feet (600 m). Slunfeh, Bludan, and
Mashta al Helu are local favorites. At Aleppo, in the northwest, the
average August temperature is about 30° C, and the average January
temperature is about 4.4° C, and Damascus is very similar in the south.
In the Desert regions of Palmyra and Deir Ezzor, in the central region
at the edge of the Syrian Desert, the corresponding temperatures are
about 30.8° C and about 6.4° C.
Along the West of the coastal mountainous range,
Syria's climate is very Mediterranean, however, there is a long dry
season from May to September. Further inland as you approach the steppe
and the Syrian Desert, the climate gradually becomes more arid, with
colder and more extreme winters and hotter, drier summers.
Rain and Snow:
Summer rain is very scarce in Syria, although it appears occasionally
in the extreme Northwest. Yearly rainfall in the coast and Western
Mountains ranges from 762 to 1020 millimeters. Further inland as you
head Eastwards rainfall decreases rapidly; the steppe between Aleppo
and Damascus receives about 255 to 510 mm a year. Further towards the
Desert, rainfall gradually decreases ranging from 127 mm to less than
25 mm in the southeast. Rainfall is variable from year to year,
particularly in the spring and autumn months.
Snow may occur in winter away from the coast, more in high humid places
and dry low lands. Frosts are common, especially in villages of high
In the Winter Syria is subjected to Eastern, Western and Northerly
winds. The prevailing summer winds are either from the North or from
the West. The Coast however, in the summer, receives winds from the
West during the day, and from the East during the night. There are few
sand or dust storms near the cities, however, the Desert villages are
subjected to it regularly. Once or twice a year sand-bearing winds, or
Khamasins, are almost 4,922 feet (1,500 m) high, this darkens the sky
into a dark red color for two to three days each time.